May 11, 2010
American Home Resolutions. Hispanic family. N.d. American Home Resolutions, n/a. http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=A0WTeffC2ehLnUQAjpejzbkF/SIG=11ufir623/EXP=1273637698/**http%3a//www.ahresolutions.com/whatwedo.aspx. Web. 1 May 2010.
There are many important factors that contribute to the development of a child. The structure of a family and the relationship that parents have with their children can affect the outcome of their development. Beginning at infancy up to school age is one of the most crucial times in a child’s life. This is because the amount of interaction that a parent gives their child can in the long run affect the child’s cognitive, social and emotional way of functioning. It is important for a parent to balance interactions with a child. Too much or too little interaction with their child can lead to problems in the future.
So what are some beliefs that Hispanic parents feel is necessary when raising their children? Respect is one of the most important values in the Hispanic culture that parents instill in their children. Hispanic parents believe that children should be obedient to authority figures. Children are taught to behave and to act accordingly. That means they should obey rules without talking back to their parents. Parents feel they have succeeded as at mother/father when the child learns to be obedient. Hispanic parents describe obedience as having manners, being respectful to authority figures and behaving in public. They feel the way their child behaves in the presence of others, reflects their parenting skills.
Abriendo Puertas/Opening Doors . (2009, May 8). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved May 1, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IS6vh8RsIYg&feature=player_embedded
How do Hispanic parents enforce punishment? Hispanic parent’s ways of punishment sometimes differ from the beliefs of other cultures. For example, if a child from the western culture misbehaves, parents are most likely to take away one of the child’s privileges as a way of punishing the child. However in the Hispanic culture, parents believe that physical punishment is more appropriate. When a child is misbehaving and physical punishment is not used, Hispanic parents believe the child will not learn right from wrong. They also believe that if the child constantly continues to get away without being disciplined, then the child may learn to walk over the parent. Now depending on the age of the child, a parent’s expectations they have of their child’s behavior will vary. Hispanic parents feel that by the age of 4 or 5, a child should have an understanding of what is expected of him or her.
So how do Hispanic children learn to be obedient? Hispanic parents use different types of controls with their children that aid in their development. “Control reflects the center of power or the source of decision making in the relationship and has a continuum that ranges from parental to child control. Type of parental power indicates the methods parents use to exert their influence on the child” (Vargas, Busch-Rossnagel, Montero-Sieburth, and Villarruel, 2000). Direction, modeling, protection and monitoring are all forms of control that Hispanic parents use when they are teaching their children. Direction is when a parent gives the child a verbal command to do something. An example would be a situation where the Mother tells the child to clean their room. The mother expects their child to follow through with their command without complaining.
The second way of using control is called modeling. Modeling is described as how the parent acts in a situation where the child is learning from what a parent may be is doing. For example, if a mother wanted to teach her daughter the process of washing clothes, she would do laundry in front of her daughter. With the child watching her mother, she is learning the steps to washing clothes. Protection is another way of control where the parent will keep their child safe and away from bad influences. Parents will teach their children safety rules like, “Don’t talk to strangers!” or “Never cross the street without holding someone’s hand!” are just two examples.
The last form of control that is used is monitoring. Monitoring is defined as how a parent keeps an eye on their children and their actions. Parents will keep a close watch on any activities that their children may be involved with and they watch how their children interact with others.
Along with the controls that aid in children’s development, Hispanic parents also believe in setting rules for their children. They feel that it is very important for rules to be put in place, because it allows them to have more parental control. Hispanic parents like to be in charge when it comes to making decisions for their children because like most parents, they feel they know what is best for their child. Hispanic parents are known to use punitive control. Punitive control, as mentioned earlier is when a parent uses physical punishment which is also known as spanking but also may involve verbal punishment too.
Another very important value in the Hispanic culture is family. Most Western families are referred as being nuclear families. Nuclear families usually consist of the Mother, Father, Son and Daughter. The Hispanic culture often differs from Western cultures because their families usually go beyond the nuclear family and include the extended family. Extended family members usually consist of but are not limited to; Aunts, Uncles, Grandparents, Cousins, Nieces and Nephews. In the Hispanic culture, family is very important and parents stress that family should always be united. Hispanic parents teach the children that family should constantly come before everything.
How does the extended family aid in the development of the child? Hispanic families believe that keeping extended family close by, helps the children with social and emotional support. Parents feel that with the extended family near, it allows the child to seek help from other family members. Sometimes a child might not feel comfortable talking to their parents or there may be times when the parent is not available. Therefore, having other family members near, the child will always have someone to go to for help. Hispanic family’s think that it is beneficial to have extended family living with them because the more family members around the more amounts of role models the children will have.
KSL TV News Spot . (2009, July 22). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved May 1, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=maf9EW5-T0c&feature=player_embedded
The third important value of the Hispanic culture is religion. “Historically, the common religion of Hispanic people was that of the Roman Catholic Church, and a large number of Hispanic children are still baptized as catholic’s” (Social Issues Reference, 2010). Hispanic families believe it is important to teach their children the beliefs and history of their culture. Teaching their children the preferred religion, traditions and history of their family is very important. Hispanic parents want their child to do the same thing when they are older and have children of their own. Parents want their culture to continue and stay strong within future generations of their family. Another important reason for teaching children religion and traditions is because many celebrations that take place in the Hispanic culture go hand in hand with their religion and it gives meaning to history of their culture.
What are some religious celebrations that take place in the Hispanic culture? For example, many Hispanic families celebrate baptism, and confirmations. One very important celebration that takes place in the Hispanic culture is called Quinceañeras. “Quinceañeras is a formal introduction of a girl into society on her 15th birthday. The quinceanera starts with a religious service, a mass of dedication and a festivity with music and dance” (Enriquez and Pajewski,1996). Another religious celebration that takes place is called Dia de la Candlaria. It takes place on February 2 where families celebrate Mary and Jesus.
Hispanic parents feel that education is very important for their children to have. Hispanic schools differ from other schools in many ways. One way is the amount of involvement that a parent has with their child’s school life. Parents from Western cultures are known to be involved with their child’s learning progress in school. Many parents in Western cultures participate in meetings that are held at schools called, PTA’s (Parent-Teacher Association). At these meetings, parents will sit down with their child’s teacher(s) and discuss any issues that their child may be having. These meetings are very beneficial to parents because sometimes children don’t always let their parents know if they are having problems. However, “In many Latin American countries it is considered rude for a parent to intrude into the life of the school. Parents believe that it is the school’s job to educate and the parent’s job to nurture and that the two jobs do not mix” (Espinosa, 1995).
Hispanic school hours are also very different from what other cultures are used to. “Hispanic children typically are in school from 9:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and from 3:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., or full time classes from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., depending on each school, except during June and September when they work mornings only, 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.” (Wikipedia, 2009). Hispanic students usually have shorter holiday breaks and longer summers. In Hispanic schools, uniforms are worn in both private and public schools. In many other cultures, some public schools are known to have dress codes that children are enforced to follow but they do not require a student to wear uniforms.
Establishing gender roles with a child in the Hispanic culture starts when the child is young. In infancy, little girls are always dressed in pink, whereas little boys are always dressed in blue. “There are three gender-specific scripts that are part of the traditional Hispanic experience. These include; marianismo (female self-sacrifice), hembrismo (femaleness), and machismo (male self-respect and responsibility)” (Ruiz, E, 2005). Machismo defines behaviors that men are taught to adhere to like, being dominant and independent. The machismo role views the man as being in charge of the family.
The two female roles differ in many ways. Marianismo defines behaviors of women as being submissive and dependent. The marianismo role stresses the importance caring for their children. The Hembrismo role focuses on a female’s strength to persevere through life’s obstacles. Because it is important for Hispanic woman to have a family, the Hembrismo role is not as accepted with many Hispanics. Hispanic parents teach boys to work hard and are educated on the importance of providing for their family when they grow up. Girls on the other hand, learn feminine traits and are taught the importance having children when they grow up where their role changes to being a mother.
Parenting styles differ from culture to culture and the type of parenting style used can either affect the child in a negative or positive way. There are three forms of parenting styles that are capable of affecting the outcome of a child’s development. Authoritarian parents tend to be very strict and usually give demands and have high expectations from their children. Decision making is usually made by the parent without asking for the child’s input. Children with authoritarian parents tend to be more insecure.
Authoritative parents tend to be nurturing and supportive but they still set limits. They are not as controlling as an authoritarian parent and when they use punishment, they usually will explain their reasoning for the punishment. Because they promote independence, they are more likely to value their child’s opinion before making decisions for them. Children with authoritative parents become independent and are more likely to show good social skills. Permissive parents tend to be very nurturing but usually do not set many, if any limits for their children. Because of the lack of limits, permissive parents are less likely to be involved with their children. They will usually give in to their child’s wants. Children with permissive parents tend to act more juvenile and show little discipline.
Much research that has been conducted on Hispanic parenting styles has found to be inconsistent. Hispanic parents tend to be very nurturing however they strongly believe in physical punishment. Therefore, Hispanic parents are usually a mix of authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles. They show an authoritative style because they are high in nurturing and at the same time they set limits. But because of the parent’s belief in physical punishment and the high demands they sometimes have on their children, they are also viewed as having an authoritarian style.
Kodak – “How to Mommy: How to Punish Properly”. (2009, October 22). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved May 1, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bD-PyhlR3qM
The Hispanic culture is one of the fastest growing cultural groups in the United States. The U.S. Census data indicates that Hispanics will be the largest minority group by the year 2050 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1992). The Hispanic culture believes in the collectivists view on life whereas the Western culture views on life are more individualistic. Collectivists tend to view their self more as belonging to a group and not just as an individual. They believe that a person succeeds not by working alone but by working together with other people. Being interdependent and maintaining relationships is very important in their culture. When they make decisions, they often think about what the outcomes of their actions will be and how it may affect others.
The Individualistic view tends to focus on oneself. They value independence and feel a person benefits more when working alone. Depending on which view that a person believes in, will have much effect on how a parent raises their child. Like all parents, Hispanic parents want what is best for the development of their child. They teach their children to adhere to these beliefs, values and religions of their culture because they believe that these aspects are most important and will aid in their child’s positive development.
Calzada, E., Fernandez, Y., & Cortes, D. (2010). Incorporating the cultural value of respeto into a framework of Latino parenting. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(1), 77-86. doi:10.1037/a0016071.
Domenech Rodríguez, M., Donovick, M., & Crowley, S. (2009). Parenting styles in a cultural context: Observations of ‘protective parenting’ in first-generation Latinos. Family Process, 48(2), 195-210. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01277.x.
Enriquez, L., & Pajewski, A. (1996). Teaching From a Hispanic Perspective a Handbook for Non-Hispanic Adult Educators. Arizona Adult Literacy and Technology Resource Center. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from http://literacynet.org/lp/hperspectives/contents.html
Espinosa, L, M., (1995). Hispanic Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs. Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/eecearchive/digests/1995/espino95.html
Halgunseth, L., Ispa, J., & Rudy, D. (2006). Parental Control in Latino Families: An Integrated Review of the Literature. Child Development, 77(5), 1282-1297. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00934.x.
Ruiz, E. (2005). Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 1(1), 33-55. doi:10.1300/J456v01n1_05.
Social Issues Reference. (2010). Hispanic Children – Definitions and Terms, Demographic Characteristics, Language, Acculturation and Biculturalism, Education And Schools – Cultural Values. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from http://social.jrank.org/pages/309/Hispanic-Children.html
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1992). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Vargas, M., Busch-Rossnagel, N., Montero-Sieburth, M., & Villarruel, F. (2000). CHAPTER 10: Authority Plus Affection: Latino Parenting during Adolescence. (pp. 265-287). Garland Science. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.
Wikipedia. (2009). Education in Spain. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Spain